Physical Change with Matter and Heat

Strand/Standard 5.2.4 Use mathematics and computational thinking to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or combining substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. Examples could include melting an ice cube, dissolving salt in water, and combining baking soda and vinegar in a closed bag. (PS1.A, PS1.B)


Lesson Performance Expectations

Students will identify different states of matter, the conservation of mass with phase change and make observations of energy/heat loss during a physical change in matter.

Candy Bar Core Drilling

Strand/Standard Standard 8.4.1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence that shows that the uneven distribution of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources is caused by geological processes. Examples of uneven distribution of resources could include Utah’s unique geologic history that led to the formation and irregular distribution of natural resources like copper, gold, natural gas, oil shale, silver, and uranium. (ESS3.A)

Lesson Performance Expectations

Students will learn how sedimentary layers are formed by building their own rock. They will learn how scientists test what is underground by using core samples to determine whether or not the area is good for their particular needs, whether it be drilling for energy sources, mining for minerals necessary to our everyday lives, or building homes or other structures. Students will explore the process by “drilling” into candy bars and characterizing the “sample.”. Students will answer questions about their observations and discuss the importance of core drilling and what minerals are found and mined in Utah. Students will then construct a scientific explanation for why resources such as oil are not found everywhere in the state.

Mining and Reclamation to Protect the Environment

Strand/Standard 5.3.4 Evaluate design solutions whose primary function is to conserve Earth’s environments and resources. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, analyze available data on proposed solutions, and determine an optimal solution. Emphasize how humans can balance everyday needs (agriculture, industry, and energy) while conserving Earth’s environments and resources. (ESS3.A, ESS3.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)

Lesson Performance Expectations

Students will develop a plan to mitigate the effects of our extraction of natural resources through mining. They will develop a plan to make use of land in a way that encourages the restoration of the natural ecosystem. They will identify the effects to the environment caused by the mining and research how mining reclamation has been done in the past, including specific examples from Utah.

Core Drilling for Oil

Strand/Standard 5.1.1 Analyze and interpret data to describe patterns of Earth’s features. Emphasize most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in bands that are often along the boundaries between continents and oceans while major mountain chains may be found inside continents or near their edges. Examples of data could include maps showing locations of mountains on continents and the ocean floor or the locations of volcanoes and earthquakes. (ESS2.B)

Lesson Performance Expectations

The student will be able to:

Students will recognize layers in the core samples, understand why core samples are taken and identify the location of an oil deposit.